Smart, Michael. 2018. Disentangling the role of cars and transit in employment and labor earnings. Transportation. 1-35.
In this article, Professor Smart and Nicholas Klein (Bloustein PhD, 2014) find that having a car helps Americans find jobs, keep those jobs over time, and move up the economic ladder. Very good transit service can provide the same benefits, but only about 5% of people (and 8% of poor people) have access to very good transit service. Further, for most people, it appears that the private benefits of auto ownership likely outweigh the private costs.